The idea was to attract the attention of policy makers thanks to an argument they were familiar with: the economic benefits we gain from something, in this case the “services” that ecosystems provide us.
Robert Costanza, fraInstitute (An institute is a permanent organization created for a specific purpose. It is …) in the economics of ecology byUniversity (A university is an institution of higher education whose goal is …) of Maryland, and his 11 colleagues from four Country (Land comes from the Latin pagus, which denoted a territorial and tribal division of extent …)had arrived at one Total (Total is the quality of complete, without exception. From an accounting point of view, a …) of $ 33,000 billion a year, fortogether (In set theory, a set intuitively denotes a collection …) global ecosystems. That is more than the world GDP of that time, estimated at $ 18,000 billion.
The objections had focused just as much on the calculation methods – if the economic value of one Forest (A forest or a forest massif is a wooded plateau, relatively dense, …) is easy to calculate how to assess that one desert (The word desert today denotes a sterile area or one that is not very conducive to …) where nothing grows except on the morality of things: can we really claim that nature has an “economic value”?
But 25 years later has the exercise beautiful (Named in honor of the inventor Alexander Graham Bell, bel is the unit of …) and actually had its utility: to reformulate debate (A debate is a (constructive) discussion about a topic, specific or substantive, announced in advance, …) including those most resistant to limiting the exploitation of natural resources or protecting the environment.environment (The environment is everything that surrounds us. It is all the natural elements and …). The exercise performed by these researchers, who came from both environmental science and economics, inspired several other calculations of the same kind, especially at the local level. As the 11 authors wrote: “We need to start giving natural capital (Natural capital refers to resources such as minerals, plants, animals, air, …) who produces these services weight (Weight is the force of gravity, of gravitational and inertial origin, exercised by …) appropriate in the decision-making processes, otherwise quality of life (A population’s quality of life is a major problem in economics and …) people will suffer drastically. “
If international efforts to protect biodiversity (Biodiversity is the natural diversity of living organisms. It is valued …) and the protection of endangered species was already well under way in 1997, these economic calculations were not slow to be integrated into the discussions and to be refined: in the years 2000 and 2010, the accumulation of projections on the damage from global warming (Global warming, also called global warming, or …)has e.g. made it necessary to calculate the “benefits” that peat bogs bring when they absorb part of the floods, in relation to the cost of rebuilding a district or a district. way (The word “road” comes from the Latin (via) rupta, literally “way …). Or “benefits” of preserving the rivers that feed one town (A city is an urban unit (a “human settlement” for …) in drinking water (Drinking water is water that must meet a certain number of properties, which makes it …)if it prevents having to build a new factory of filtration (Filtering is a separation process that makes it possible to separate …). Or more large scale (The large ladder, also called an air ladder or car ladder, is a …)the benefits of the Amazon forest if its disappearance were to accelerate the accumulation of carbon (Carbon is a chemical element in the family of crystallogens, symbol C, …) i L ‘atmosphere (The word atmosphere can have several meanings 🙂, compared to the billions of dollars in trouble that would arise. In 2012, the United Nations adopted a measure called the Ecosystem’s Gross Product, which, implemented in several countries, including China, serves as a guide to more “green” investment.
As mentioned this week in the review Nature two researchers who are members of Natural capital projectbyStanford University (Leland Stanford Junior University, better known as Stanford University, is a …)“the means towater (Water is a ubiquitous chemical compound on Earth, essential for all …)“created through world (The word the world can refer to 🙂 and other “payments for environmental services” are heirs to this heretical idea.
These two researchers allow themselves a little optimism: “By November 2021, ten multilateral development banks (financial institutions based in more than one country and set up to promote economic development), which contribute approximately $ 222 billion annually in development aid, have committed to to “integrate nature into our policies, analyzes, assessments, advice and operations by 2025”.
The original article:
Robert Costanza et al., “The Value of World Ecosystem Services and natural (Natural is a semi-compiled programming language, published by the company …) capital”, NatureMay 15, 1997
Did you like this article? Do you want to support us? Share it on social networks with your friends and / or comment on it, this will encourage us to publish more similar topics!