GDS Creuse – Wildlife health monitoring in Creuse

The working group DDETSPP23, DDT23, LDA d’Ajain, GDS Creuse and the Fédération Départementale des Chasseurs de la Creuse continued its monitoring for the 2021/2022 season, thanks to hunters who collected biological material from animals taken during hunting. Everyone would like to thank this network of hunters – samplers. Three-year monitoring (tuberculosis in deer, brucellosis in wild boar) repeated at the regional level for deer (tuberculosis), health news (Aujeszky in wild boar) and regulatory obligations (trichinosis in wild boar) focused the research. For trichinae, again, all 45 results are negative.

Tuberculosis monitoring of wildlife with the SAGIR and SYLVATUB networks …

The epidemiological situation of bovine tuberculosis in France shows a very low prevalence on farms, but with a high proportion of cases in New Aquitaine (70 of the 99 national outbreaks). In areas where the disease is established, wild animals can become infected. In order to identify infection from wild animals as early as possible, a monitoring network (Sylvatub) has been set up. The ward level depends on the risk of this disease. Level 3 is used in wards where it has a relatively high prevalence and where it is necessary to further characterize the circulation of the disease in wildlife. Level 2 is used according to the following elements: recent detection of cases of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife, detection of bovine outbreaks on a regular basis or with an increase in incidence or proximity to areas classified as level 3. Level 1 is allocated to other departments including Creuse.

… Complementary measures in Creuse…

Due to the special tuberculosis situation in our region and the sensitivity of Creuse livestock mainly in open-air breeding, it was decided to set up specific monitoring as part of the three-year follow-up. In the campaign 2021/2022, samples were taken from 73 deer, all results were negative.

… And on a par with Massif Central

The Cerf Observatory of the Massif Central (OCMC) wanted to set up health surveillance and drew inspiration from the Creuse scheme. Views are created in Cantal, Corrèze, Creuse, Haute-Loire and Lozère, as well as for two partner departments, Aveyron and Tarn. For this campaign, the screening concerned the monitoring of bovine tuberculosis. 41 samples were analyzed for Creuse, all results were negative.

Monitoring of porcine brucellosis in feral pigs

Long identified in wild boar, the incidence of porcine brucellosis is evaluated every 3 years. The situation is stable, with a positivity of about 50%. This is a reminder of the need for outdoor southern farms to introduce all biosecurity measures and in particular compliance with the fences. As this disease is a zoonosis, persons handling wild boar must follow basic hygiene measures.

… And Aujeszky after wild boar warnings

Due to cases of Aujeszky’s disease in wild boar farms in Allier in 2020 and 2021, a farm in Corrèze in 2021 and the contamination of several hunting dogs, surveillance for this disease has been carried out in 2 campaigns. Particular attention was paid to the adjacent areas of open-air south farms and to the eastern boundary of the department. 39 samples were taken and no positive results were obtained.

A study of alveolar echinococcosis in foxes

It is a parasitic disease caused by a small tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis. Mainly foxes, but also dogs and occasionally cats parasitize themselves by ingesting mouse mice (intermediate hosts). Carnivores then secrete highly resistant “eggs” into the external environment, which can contaminate fruits, plants or their fur with their excrement. Humans can then become an unintentional host, through proximity to foxes or direct contact with dogs as well as ingestion of dirty products. A sample of 100 samples evenly distributed across the department in Creuse was programmed. With a prevalence of 47% of 62 foxes, the first results confirm the presence of this parasite on our territory.

For 2022/2023 trichinae control, continued Aujeszky’s monitoring and an SDRP study on wild boar

The search for Trichinella will continue due to the statutory obligations regarding their consumption. Given the persistent alarm about Aujeszky’s disease, monitoring will continue with re-analyzed 50 samples, combined with a PRRS analysis to verify the absence of circulation of this disease in the wild population.

For wild game, BVD monitoring
Deer are a species that is theoretically susceptible to BVD virus and their serological status is monitored every 3 years. So far, all the results have been negative, confirming that wildlife is not a risk factor for cattle. For this campaign, 100 samples will be analyzed again.

An assessment of the level of parasite infestation in deer

In recent years, we have observed relatively high parasitic contamination in red deer, with the emergence of new bovine parasites that appear to adapt to deer (ostertagia for example). This monitoring will also be extended to include deer in the Massif Central within the framework of the OCMC.
The institute’s serum library, a tool for research

Since 2009, the blood samples sent to the LDA in Ajain have been stored to allow for a later resumption if research into a pathology were to be decided. To date, 1,198 specimens have been preserved, of which 408 from red deer, 359 from deer and 229 from wild boar.

Health monitoring of wild animals, a useful tool for everyone

Wildlife health surveillance, which has been in place in Creuse since 1996, makes it possible to collect data on the status of game with regard to zoonoses and diseases common to wild and domestic species. It represents a potential alert tool for wildlife managers and human and animal health, and therefore it continues to adapt as needed. For breeders, the only identified threat is swine brucellosis with a high incidence in wild boar. Do not hesitate to contact us for comments, suggestions or requests.

Dr. Dr. BOUBET (GDS Creuse) – S. QUINIO (FDC 23) – Dr. Dr. GILLI-DUNOYER (DDT) – Dr. ML. JEANDAUX (DDETSPP) – Dr. E. GUILLEMOT (LDA)

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