Morocco, this Eldorado against the European exile of migrants from East Africa

When living in the streets of Oujda and sleeping on the sidewalks or in derelict land, it is customary to find exile originating from Sudan and South Sudan in the Moroccan city and the surrounding cities, Berkane, Nador, Beni Ansar …

This flow of migration is explained by the slackness of the Algerian authorities, who close their eyes to their passage to Morocco in a diplomatic context marked by tensions, let us say, between the two countries. These migrants, mostly Sudanese or even from Chad or Mali, would have had Chad, Niger, Mali, Libya and Algeria as transit countries. Almost all of them, Sudanese, are between 16 and 26 years old. They come from the towns of Khartoum, Omdurman or the villages of Darfur. In Oujda, two groups of these migrants can be distinguished, those who returned from Nador, where they were “returned” after trying to enter the Spanish enclave of Melilla and the other “newcomers” who arrived from Libya, where a number ‘among. they have experienced Libyan prisons.

Sudanese migrants take two different routes to reach Morocco via Oujda. Some pass through southern Libya, cross the Algerian desert to reach the capital Algiers, Oran, before entering Morocco via Oujda, while another arrival, if we dare say, passes through Zarzis, in Tunisia and crosses Algeria. A single objective Europe via enclaves and crossings, because Oujda does not mean the end of their journey, because Oujda is only a step towards European exile. The statements of migrants arrested in the tragic attempt to cross Melilla, collected by the authorities, condemn the criminal networks operating during their 5,000-kilometer journey that took them from Sudan to Morocco.

The last of them, and it seems to be the most powerful, which facilitates access and installation in the mountains of Nador is in Algeria. According to the emigrants themselves, they organize themselves in the mountains near Nador, the Moroccan province bordering Melilla, in forest camps while waiting for them to jump over the fence, in a hierarchical structure with a maximum chief and subgroups ordered by a dozen chefer.

In the case of the border between Sudan and Libya, they will have paid between 50 euros and 70 euros to cross it, and as prices rise between 300 and 500 euros in Algeria solely for the purpose of reaching Morocco. .

The transcripts of almost the majority of the statements indicate that the network in Algeria is led by a portable, tattooed 35-year-old Malian named Boss (chief), and that he is deployed in a farm with a full overview of the Algerian authorities. from the Algerian city of Maghnia, about ten kilometers from the Moroccan border, which hundreds of people are waiting to pass for weeks.

Network members take them and then cross the border in groups of 30 to 40. A 20-year-old Chadian and a 19-year-old Sudanese even said they went through tunnels connecting the two sides of the border. Many migrants agree that coordination and communication between the various members of the “Boss” network takes place via message apps and a closed Facebook group, where they decide how and when to cross the Melilla fence. The various stages in Algeria and Morocco are told, for example, by an 18-year-old Sudanese man who fled Darfur, spent a month waiting for the so-called “Boss” farm before crossing the border with 40 people.

Upon their arrival in Moroccan territory, where Sudanese take them in to take them to Oujda, from where they were then transferred in several cars to Berkane, then to the mountains of Nador closer to Melillia. There, deprived of their documents and mobile phones, they practically follow a training of “guerrillas” (use of weapons such as stones, sticks, hooks, sabers, knives …) and pay their accommodation (20 dhs per meal) money, which they get. by begging.

On the Spanish side, the jump towards the Melilla fence left 106 wounded, 49 civilian guards and 57 immigrants, three of whom had to be transferred to the regional hospital. A police report also reports confiscation of 640 wooden sticks, 13 metal hooks attached to wooden sticks, three medium-sized knives, a large hammer, a chain attached to a padlock and a metal bar.

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